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HIIT and Endurance Performance

We hear lots about high intensity interval training these days, but one of the most fascinating things about HIIT is its ability to help athletes improve their performance in endurance events.

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HIIT and Endurance Performance

Let’s start by looking at traditional endurance training, which increases the duration of steady-state but low-intensity training (LIT) to improve oxygen and fuel use in muscle fibers. Longer was always better during the running and triathlon booms from the mid-1970s through the end of the 20th century—heavily influenced by legendary marathon performances and popular events like the Hawaii Ironman Triathlon and the Tour de France. 

Even now, LIT protocols account for more than 70% of most endurance programming, with HIIT and moderate-intensity training (MIT) filling out the balance of annual training plans. Recreational endurance athletes can spend anywhere from 5 to 15 hours a week pursuing their passion, mostly logging mileage to build and maintain an aerobic base. HIIT programming is much more rare, used mainly closer to race day for effective pacing strategies (Seiler & Tonnessen 2009). The LIT performance training model thrived for more than 50 years with little challenge to its supremacy until recent research into HIIT expanded our knowledge of how higher intensity can improve many of the physiological pathways and energy production systems common to LIT aerobic training.

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Aerobic and Anaerobic Systems Contribute to Each Other 

Our bodies have three basic energy systems with three separate purposes and three distinct cellular pathways based on how fuel provides energy. One system is aerobic, and the other two are anaerobic. The aerobic system is the one we use daily for low-level functions at a low to medium heart rate (under 50%–70% of maximal HR) for long periods of time. This is the system most used in endurance events as well. By contrast, the anaerobic systems are reserved for higher levels of physical effort, and function at much higher heart rates. The anaerobic system is divided into two subsystems based on duration (Wilmore, Costill & Kenney 1999).

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Aerobic (or Oxidative) System Functions

The aerobic system, also known as the oxidative system, is a complex consumer of energy. It uses oxygen to break down the fuels (fats and carbohydrates) we ingest to function. Because lots of oxygen is needed to process fuel, work efforts must remain low to allow all of the chemical processes to take place properly. This system can operate longer than the two anaerobic systems and remains relatively self-perpetuating at the muscle cell level because of continued oxygen supply, stored fuel capacity and the possibility of refueling during longer efforts. These factors explain why the aerobic system gets the most attention from endurance athletes and coaches (Magness 2014).

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Anaerobic System 1: Speed and Strength

The two anaerobic subsystems are categorized by type of fuel used, length of time and the amount of energy they produce. The quickest and most powerful system for short intensive efforts is called the ATP-PCr System, which we will call the speed-and-strength system. It is used in sprinting and weightlifting and has a lifespan of about 3–15 seconds before recovery is needed to replenish the muscle cells. These times are so short that the endurance world largely ignores the speed-and-strength system (Willmore, Costill & Kenney 1999; Seiler & Tonnessen 2009).

Anaerobic System 2: Glycolytic

The second anaerobic system is called the glycolytic system, so named because it uses glucose (carbohydrates). This system can sustain higher levels of work for brief periods of time, with its lifespan depending mostly on the buildup of fatiguing exercise byproducts called metabolites.

The glycolytic system can produce energy for anywhere from 30 to 120 seconds, but it also works in concert with the aerobic system to promote work at higher intensities (over 60%–70% of maximal HR). Depending on a coach’s or athlete’s philosophy, glycolytic-system exercise can be an important training component, especially during race-pace development (Willmore, Costill & Kenney 1999; Seiler & Tonnessen 2009).

HIIT programming consists largely of the latter two systems and includes sprint, strength and short-rest, interval-based cardiovasculair training. Peak efforts lasting 3–120 seconds might not seem like enough time to give these systems an equal or higher priority than aerobic training, but research has documented the effectiveness of HIIT (Laursen 2010; Steele et al. 2012).

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Research Supporting HIIT’s Benefits for Endurance

Multiple studies have found that the improvements mentioned above can be trained in very short periods of time with HIIT. Gibala and McGee (2008) postulated that HIIT’s high demands stress both the oxidative and glycolytic systems, triggering a significant increase in muscle fiber recruitment. Both type 2 (fast-twitch glycolytic fibers) and type 1 (slow-twitch oxidative fibers) are recruited and trained during HIIT. This dual stimulus of short-duration, high-intensity work boosts mitochondrial mass and increases oxidative enzyme activity—effects normally associated with LIT. This is crucial because cell mitochondria are critical to providing fuel to muscle for energy (Gibala & McGee 2008; Burgomaster et al. 2005). High-intensity efforts stimulate the body to recruit, challenge and train more motor units—the contraction-signaling structures within a muscle group (Steele et al. 2012). Having more of these highly trained units is advantageous, especially as intensity increases, because muscle fibers and their respective motor units are rotated during lower intensities in alternating rest/work cycles. Athletes with the most potentially active motor units will have more that can be cycled in to delay fatigue (Magness 2014).

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While HIIT can enhance slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers, LIT is almost exclusively a slow-twitch recruiter. All this does not mean HIIT should be performed exclusively for endurance or health in general. After all, there are several distinct advantages to LIT: Lower intensities help with recovery, improve peripheral circulatory adaptations and may improve stroke volume—the amount of blood pumped by the heart—better than HIIT does (Seiler & Tonnessen 2009). Furthermore, LIT at longer training distances may improve overall psychological preparation for longer racing distances.

All of these factors suggest the need for a mix of HIIT and LIT to create an effective overall program that will help your clients, especially if they are training for endurance events.

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IMPROVE KNEE STABILITY

IMPROVE KNEE STABILITY

The hamstrings ( Back of the thighs) and vastus medialis (VMO) are Two muscles that are critical to knee stability

A chain is only as strong as its weakest link!

Toe rek

Why Big Toe Mobility is Important!?

Why Big Toe Mobility is Important!?

When you think of the most common lower body injuries, you think ankle sprains, shin splints, runner’s knee, jumper’s knee, fasciitis, or Achilles tendinitis.

When you have these injuries, you treat the injured area. We might be overlooking a little, but big deal. Dysfunction in the big toe influences every step you take, every lunge, every jump, and every stride of every run. Ultimately, it can be a direct result in many of the aforementioned common lower body injuries. If you have dysfunction (pain, instability, or hypomobility) at the first big toe joint (MTP joint), it could wreak havoc on the entire kinetic chain.

Normal range of motion of the big toe is 40° flexion, 80-90° extension, and 10-20° abduction and adduction. Lack of motion, especially extension, will create compensatory movement at other joints. Common big toe issues such as, hallux valgus (bunion), hallux rigidus, turf toe, sesamoiditis, and gout will limit toe mobility. Here you can see a image of a athlete who demonstrates normal range or motion and limited toe extension.
     

Start Mobilizing some big toe extension. It’s more important than most people think!
Spend time barefoot, wear footwear that lets your big toe extend and if stiff and restricted, start working on restoring the mobility.


This wall stretch is a great one to do daily. 

 

#bigtoe #mobility #stability #running #runningform #endurance#strenghttraining #stretching #bigtoestretch #extension #injuries#lowerbody #motion

Running blog

Getting Back to Running After a Long Break!?

Getting Back to Running After a Long Break!?

 

Join a Running Group
If you’ve typically run alone in the past, try to increase your motivation (and get lots of other great benefits) by running with others.

Join us every Wednesday from 18:30 to 20:00 Q-Life Personal Training

Follow a Training Schedule
Although runners have previous running experience, many runners who’ve taken a long break from running find it helpful to follow a beginner schedule.

Strenght Training
Strenght & Conditioning in between your running days is an excellent way to increase your endurance and strength without running too much and risking injury.

Avoid Doing Too Much Too Soon
Many runners coming back from injuries find themselves re-injured because they increase their mileage too quickly.

Create a Running Habit
After a long break from running, it can be tough to get back into the groove of running on a regular basis. But if you take steps to establish a running habit, such as scheduling your runs on your calendar and giving yourself small rewards, you can make a running habit stick.

Pick a Short Race
Once you’ve got a few weeks of running under your belt, pick a race to train for. Start with something small, such as a 5K, before you register for a longer race.

bikeweekend_share

5 daagse fietsstage in Spanje

Sportieve fietsvakantie onder de Spaanse zon.

Altijd al gedroomd van een fietsvakantie onder de Spaanse zon? Met GLC maken we je droom werkelijkheid! Het Spaanse vasteland is al jaar en dag een vaste waarde voor sportieve fietsvakanties. In Bénijofar (Costa Blanca) vind je alles wat het hart van een fietsliefhebber sneller doet slaan: een aangenaam microklimaat, een wegennetwerk in perfecte staat, een rustige fietsomgeving en perfect uitgeruste huisje om goed te recupereren :)

Weekindeling all-in-bike concept

Dag 1

Op de dag van aankomst voorzien we na het inchecken in ons huisje te Bénijofar een lekkere hap bij Tapas bar Sonia. Aansluitend strekken we nog even de benen en doen we nog een rustige rit. 's Avonds sluiten we de dag af met een stretching moment en bespreking van de volgende dag.

Dag 2

De tweede dag starten we op met een uurtje stretching. Daarna gaan we voor een stevig gezond ontbijt om dan een drie tal uur te gaan fietsen op selectief parcours . 's Avonds plannen we nog een sessie core stability. We eindigen de dag met een lekkere maaltijd en een korte briefing van de volgende dag.

Dag 3

Op zaterdag starten we terug op met wat voorbereidend werk en na ons ontbijt plannen we een rit van een 4-tal uur naar de bergen met redelijk wat hoogtemeters :). 's Avonds nemen we terug onze tijd voor actieve recuperatie aan de hand van een Yoga flow voor fietsers.

Dag 4

Vierde dag vertrekken we na een korte movement preparation naar de bergen voor een rit van een vijf uur. Vandaag gaan we richting Hondon de los Frailes waar we tussen de bergketens een zeer mooie omgeving trotseren. Bij thuiskomst tijd voor post-workout meal en rust. 's Avonds plannen we terug een actief herstel moment in.

Dag 5

Op onze laatste dag gaan we vroeg in de morgen nog twee-tal uur los rijden. In de namiddag vertrekken we, met de nodige fietskilometers in de benen, naar de luchthaven van Alicante.

Inbegrepen in het pakket

  • Transfers luchthaven Alicante- woning
  • Verblijf in een huisje te Benijofar en ontbijt
  • Het volledige 'all-in-bike concept'

Niet inbegrepen in het pakket

  • Vlucht op donderdag vanuit Brussel (6u05) naar Alicante (TUI)
  • Vlucht op maandag vanuit Alicante (17u20) naar oostende (TUI)
  • Fietstransport van en naar luchthaven Brussel en Oostende of huur racefiets ter plaatse
  • Lunch en avondmaal
  • Dranken
  • Uitstappen

Praktische informatie

  • Reservering fiets (indien geen eigen fiets) Om de beschikbaarheid (juiste maat!) van je racefiets te garanderen, is het belangrijk zo snel mogelijk na je boeking je fietsmaten door te geven.
  • Prijs? 499 euro
  • Waar? Bénijofar (Coast Brava)
  • Wanneer? 15 - 19 november 2018